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The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

  • Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia1, 1993

The 1993 Constitution of Macedonia lists in its 8th Article the ecological protection and development as a fundamental value of the constitutional order of the Republic of Macedonia.

43rd Article states that “everyone has the right to a healthy environment to live in. Everyone is obliged to promote and protect the environment. The Republic provides conditions for the exercise of the right of citizens to a healthy environment.” It is also precised, in Article 55 providing for economic relations that “the freedom of the market and entrepreneurship can be restricted by law only for reasons of the defence of the Republic, protection of the natural and living environment or public health.”

Amendment XVII of the same Constitution states in its Section 2 that “in units of local self-government, citizens directly and through representatives participate in decision-making on issues of local relevance particularly in the fields of public services, urban and rural planning, environmental protection (…)”.

Macedonia adopted in 1996 the Act on Environment and Nature Protection and Promotion. Later repealed by the Law on Nature Protection of 2004 and the Law on Environment of 2005, the Act on Environment and Nature Protection and Promotion was the first Act in that field in Macedonia and has as duty to “specify the rights and responsibilities of the Republic of Macedonia, legal entities and persons, in the providing of pre-requisites for environment and nature protection and promotion, with the purpose of implementing the right of citizens to healthy environment.”

More information regarding projects, policies and publications of the Macedonian Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning on environment protection can be accessed here.

1. The Constitution of Macedonia, 1993, can be accessed on the Government’s official website.