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  • Constitution of Turkmenistan1, 1992

Article 11 of the Constitution of Turkmenistan, 1992, states that: "The government is responsible for preserving the national historico-cultural heritage and natural environment, as well as for ensuring equality between social and national groups. The government encourages the scientific and creative arts and the dissemination of their achievements, and facilitates the development of international contacts in the fields of science, culture, education, sports, and tourism."

The Law on Environmental Protection (only in Russian), 1991, is the framework law on environmental policy in Turkmenistan. According to the FAO Legal Office's website, "the state policy in the field of environmental protection is aimed at ensuring the priority of ecological interests of the society with the consideration of scientifically substantiated combination of economic and other activity with solicitous care for nature, its wealth, and rational use of natural resources and guaranteed protection of human right to healthy and favourable environment. In the process of carrying out economic, administrative and other activities producing environmental impact local executive bodies, legal and natural persons shall be guided by the following principles:
1) Conservation of sustainability of biosphere and its ecosystems;
2) Scientifically substantiated combination of ecological, economic and social interests of society;
3) Ensuring real rights of citizens to favourable environment;
4) Observance of environmental legislation and liability for the violation thereof. Land, subsoil, water, forest vegetable kingdom and wildlife, atmospheric air, climate and ozone layer shall be subject to protection against damage, annihilation, pollution, exhaustion and other non-rational use".

1. The Constitution of Turkmenistan is available in English on the WIPO database's website..