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Russian Federation
  • Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire, 1832
  • Russian Constitution of 1906
  • The 1918 Constitution of the Russian SFSR
  • The Constitution of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic of 19781
  • Constitution of the Russian Federation2, 1993

The 1978 Constitution of Russia states in its 17th Article that the “State shall […] protect the environment”.
Article 18 provides for environmental protection: “in the interests of present and future generations in the Russian Federation adopted the necessary measures to protect and make scientific, rational use of land and its mineral and water resources, flora and fauna, to preserve the purity of air and water, ensure reproduction of natural resources and improve the human environment.”
Article 55 states that “the State shall take measures to encourage activities that promote environmental well-being, improve the health of everyone (…)”.
Article 67 regarding duties of the citizens of the Russian Federation states that “everyone is obliged to preserve nature and the environment, and care for animals and plants.”

The current Constitution also considers these rights and duties.
Article 36 of the Russian Constitution of 1993 states that: “the possession, use and management of the land and other natural resources shall be freely exercised by their owners provided this does not cause damage to the environment or infringe upon the rights and interests of other persons.”
Article 42 sets the right to a healthy environment: “everyone shall have the right to a favourable environment, reliable information about its condition and to compensation for the damage caused to his or her health or property by ecological violations.”
Article 58 of the same Constitution states that: “everyone shall be obliged to preserve nature and the environment, and care for natural wealth.”
Article 74 on trade also sets: “Restrictions on the movement of goods and services may be established under the federal law, if this is necessary for the protection of the people's safety, their lives and health, protection of environment and cultural values.”

Furthermore, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation provides for environmental protection. In its Statute, it is clearly defined as the Ministry that “shall be a federal executive authority performing functions of public policy making and statutory regulation in the field of the study, use, renewal, and conservation of natural resources, including the subsoil, water bodies, forests located in designated conservation areas, fauna and their habitat, in the field of hunting, hydrometeorology and related areas, environmental monitoring and pollution control, including radiation monitoring and control, and functions of public environmental policy making and implementation and statutory regulation, including issues of production and consumption waste management (hereinafter waste), conservation areas, and state environmental assessment.”

Environmental legislation in Russia can be accessed at http://faolex.fao.org.

1. The previous Constitution of Russia, 1978, with its amendments until 1992, is available (in Russian) here.
2. The current Constitution of Russia, 1993, is available here.