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  • Constitution of the Republic of Mozambique, 1990

Mozambique’s Constitution1 of 1990 with its amendments until 2004 addresses environmental preservation. Article 72 states that “all citizens shall have the right to live in, and the duty to defend, a balanced natural environment”. Article 37 obliges the State to make efforts to guarantee the ecological balance and conservation of the environment in order to improve citizens’ quality of life.

The 1997 Environment Law, in Chapter I, Article 2, defines the legal basis for the proper use and management of the environment with focus on sustainable development. It gives responsibility to the Government to prepare and implement a National Programme for Environmental Management and also establishes the National Council on Sustainable Development as a consultative organ and forum for public opinion on environmental matters. Chapter II, Article 10, gives authority to the Government to establish environmental quality standards in order to ensure the sustainable use of national resources. Chapter IV outlines special measures for environmental protection. Chapter V addresses environmental impact assessments and audits. Chapter VII outlines the reconciliation of economic activities with environmental needs.

Additional information on environmental legislation in Mozambique can be accessed through the Government's official website.

1. The 1990 Constitution of Mozambique can be accessed here.